The Agora's research pages are moving to ascsa.net and can be found at the following link: http://agora.ascsa.net.


[Website]  The Athenian Citizen: Introduction

The government of ancient Athens concerned itself with many aspects of the lives of its citizens. In the pure democracy of Athens the government was not only of the people and for the people but also ...

[Website]  The Athenian Citizen: The Agora and Pnyx

Center of public activity, the Agora was a large open square where all the citizens could assemble (2, 3). It was used for a variety of functions: markets, religious processions, athletic contests, military ...

[Website]  The Athenian Citizen: Citizenship Tribes and Demes

Every male Athenian, above and beyond the regular universal military training for service in the citizen army, was subject to universal political service. Besides being a member of the Assembly, he was ...

[Website]  The Athenian Citizen: The Eponymous Heroes

Just as all governmental activity and policy stemmed from the individual Athenian citizen, so there was a center in the Agora from which the lines of power went out to all men in all fields of activity ...

[Website]  The Athenian Citizen: Military Service

After the 18-year-old was registered in his deme as a citizen and was approved by the Council, he entered military service as a young conscript (ephebe) with other members of his tribe. “The fathers hold ...

[Website]  The Athenian Citizen: The Council and Magistrates

Like selection for military service, allotment to the Council was organized according to the division by tribes; 50 members from each tribe acted as a unit in the Council and held the presidency (prytany) ...

[Website]  The Athenian Citizen: Law Against Tyranny

In the fourth century B.C. the Athenians were faced with the dangerous possibility of tyranny. Although the Macedonian king had guaranteed Athenian democracy in the peace following the battle of Chaironeia ...

[Website]  The Athenian Citizen: Ostracism

In addition to the legal assassination condoned in the Law against Tyranny, a less extreme method was also available for removing powerful but dangerous men from public life. This was a formal, regular ...

[Website]  The Athenian Citizen: Judiciary and Lawcourts

The lawcourts of Athens, a city notorious throughout Greece for the litigiousness of her citizens, were both numerous and large. Several of these lawcourts were in the immediate vicinity of the Agora, ...

[Website]  The Athenian Citizen: Athenian Currency

Many of the specialized administrative boards have left material traces of their activities. Most prolific of these were the moneyers, or Overseers of the Mint. Throughout her history Athens was noted ...

[Website]  The Athenian Citizen: Standard Weights and Measures

The Controllers of Measures (Metronomoi) have also left us many samples of their work. One set of bronze weights (34), inscribed as standard weights of the Athenians, are surmounted by molded symbols ...

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[Object]  A 1133: Tile Standard

One corner and part of one end broken away; otherwise complete. On one face two long concave cuttings, one wide and shaped rather like a rain tile, the other narrow and rather like a cover tile. Anathyrosis ... 17 July 1946

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[Object]  AO 152: Ostrakon of Themistokles Neokleos

Βάση μελαμβαφούς κύλικος, (Θεμιστοκλής Νεοκλέους). Διάφοροι χείρες.

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[Object]  B 146: Dikast's Ballot

Entire; pierced. Clearing area of S.W. building, disturbed. Leica, Color slide, 80-130 ... 28 February 1934

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[Object]  B 262: Shield

Inscribed. Found largely complete, but very much bent and chipped. An oval shield with a narrow rim ornamented with a fine multiple guilloche pattern repousse. The central part of the shield was apparently ... 7 February 1936

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[Object]  B 492: Athenian Weight : "a Fourth"

Thick square slab of bronze. The metal having a high lead content. On the top added in relief, an oval shield. Inscribed on top lengthwise of the shield and around two vertical faces. Σταθμά εξ ορειχάλκου ... 4 June 1937

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[Object]  B 495: Athenian Weight : Stater

Thick square slab of bronze. The metal with a high lead context. On the top, in relief, an astragal. Incised on the top and around two of the side faces. Σταθμά εξ ορειχάλκου. Αθηναϊκός ενεπίγραφος στατήρας ... 7 June 1937

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[Object]  B 497: Athenian Weight : "a Sixth"

Thick square bronze block. Tortoise on top in relief. Inscribed on top and sides. Σταθμά εξ ορειχάλκου. Φέρει στην κορυφή ανάγλυφη παράσταση χελώνας. Βάρος: 126 gr. Well, lower fill, earth. Stoa Gallery ... 11 June 1937

[Object]  B 725: Phiale Fragment

Part of the floor, and the omphalos, preserved. Pitiful condition. Pit, burned patch at east, near Sacrificial Pit X. 2275 Leica ... 13 June 1939

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[Object]  B 822: Dikast's Ticket

Broken off at the right. Very thin. Inscribed in punched letters. Eνεπίγραφο δικαστικό πινάκιο. Φέρει αποκρούσεις στη μία του πλευρά. Acropolis Museum Temporary Exhibition (May 2010) House C, room 4, layer ... 13 October 1947

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[Object]  B 1046: Blanks

Eleven pieces cut from a rod. One of these is the remnant of the rod, become to short for further cutting. Eight pieces are "normal", two are scraps. The cutting was done with a chisel anywhere from one ... 16 June 1953

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[Object]  B 1056: Dikast's Ballot

Intact. Solid hub. Obverse : plain Reverse : E Δικαστική ψήφος, με ανάγλυφη παράσταση γράμματος "Ε". Terrace, first northern extension. Metals Room 90-27 Nov. 24, 2003-April 15, 2004 2773 Leica, color ... 27 November 1953

[Object]  B 1058: Dikast's Ballot

Intact. Solid hub. Inscribed. Obverse : ΨΗΦΟΣ ΔΗΜΟΣΙΑ Reverse : Ε Ενεπίγραφη δικαστική ψήφος. Terrace, first northern extension. Metals Room 90-27 Nov. 24, 2003-April 15, 2004 2773 Leica, color slide, ... 27 November 1953

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[Object]  B 1082: Official Measure

Cylindrical. Sides slightly concave. Raised bands at top and bottom. Flat bottom with three broad shallow legs of which one missing. Inscription incised around band at top. See B 1082 BIS. Μέτρο χαλκού, ... Card: ca. 400 B.C.

[Object]  B 1082 BIS: Official Measure

This measure is smaller than the B 1082. The tripod feet appears to have been set upside down inside the first but the corrosion is so far advanced that the two cannot be separated. Bottom and less than ... Card: ca. 400 B.C.

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[Object]  B 1221: Flan

Smoothed, made ready for striking Panathenaic Way cut I, loose upper filling. Late Roman. 558 Leica ... 25 April 1959

[Object]  B 1253: Blank for Bronze Coin

End of a bronze rod somewhat angular in section out by a cold chisel. Reminiscent of blanks from the mint. South Stoa II, east end , layer III. Disturbed 2nd c. B.C. context. 6641 Leica ... 18 July 1960

[Object]  B 1641: Flan

The flan has two sides. One is flat with some striations. The other has leveled edges and a central punch mark. Next to the punch mark is a countermanrk of an open right hand, implying the flan had circulated ... Card: 2nd c. A.D.

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[Object]  I 236: Record Fragments

Inscribed fragments. Confiscated property of Alcibiades. "POLETAI" record. Fragment ΣΤ 604 from upper right corner of inscribed block. Full thickness of block preserved, but large flakes broken from surface ... (ΣΤ 604) 11 May 1932 a) (Κ 1350) 16 July 1947 b) (Κ 22) 22 January 1934 c) (ΘΘ 5) 18 December 1936 c) (ΙΙ 242b) March 1938 d) (ΘΘ 30) 30 December 1936 d) (ΘΘ 44) 17 January 1937 d) )ΙΙ 133) 7-8 March 1938 ...

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[Object]  I 317: Marble Fragment: Treaty

Top of inscribed stele. The full width of the stone, and the top surface, is preserved. The plain top, on which are the first two lines of the inscription, projects 0.015m. from the main part of the stele ... 450 B.C.

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[Object]  I 3967: Kleroterion

Broken, full width and thickness preserved. Setting tongue at bottom. Back appears to have been rough picked; worn smooth from later use. Sides smooth. Eleven rows of slots. At the left side traces of ... 1935

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[Object]  I 6524: Decree Fragment

Inscribed fragment of stele. The top akroterion and some of the bottom below the setting line broken away; otherwise intact. An attempt was made in antiquity to break up the stele, and a narrow channel ... 337/336 B.C.

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[Object]  I 6959: Marble Fragments: Casualty List

Inscribed fragments. Fragment ΕΛ 280 a), broken at left and below. Anathyrosis at right. Cutting for T-clamp in top. Back smooth picked. Stoichedon (lines 3 ff.) Fragment ΒΔ 14 b), broken on all three ... 5th. century B.C.

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[Object]  I 7039: Boundary Stone

Inscribed Agora boundary stone. Top worn smooth by traffic. Corners broken. Inscription written retrograde across top and along left side. Inscription does not cover corners, a fact perhaps indicating ... 27 July 1967

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[Object]  IL 315: Lead Weight

Square. In relief on upper surface, amphora and raised letters. In relief on the body of the amphora, a draped bearded figure, seated right in a high-backed throne; in his left hand a staff. Behind the ... 17 June 1935

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[Object]  IL 1563: Lead Cavalry Tablet

Text complete, but about 0.04 of tablet missing from right. Originally folded in three. Inscription on both sides. Joins IL 1600. Μολύβδινη ταινία. Λείπει τμήμα από τη δεξιά της άκρη. Well. Stoa Gallery ... 2-3 July 1971

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[Object]  IL 1572: Lead Token

Whole to right. A: greave in incuse circle. B: letter alpha (A) in relief. Overstrock. Μολύβδινο σύμβολο, με παράσταση περικνημίου πολεμιστού στη μία πλευρά και ανάγλυφη παράσταση γράμματος "Α" στην άλλη ... 2 July 1971

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[Object]  IL 1573: Lead Token

Whole. A: thorax (breast plate; two layers of lappets, mounted on a pole ?). Incised circle. B: letter gamma (Γ) in relief. Overstrock. Μολύβδινο σύμβολο, με παράσταση θώρακα στη μία πλευρά και ανάγλυφη ... 2 July 1971

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[Object]  IL 1574: Lead Token

Chips missing. A: thorax in incuse circle. (Breast plate; two layers of lappets, mounted on a pole ?). B: letter alpha (A) in relief. Overstrock on token with another letter. Μολύβδινο σύμβολο, με παράσταση ... 3 July 1971

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[Object]  IL 1575: Lead Token

Chip missing. A: helmet to right in incuse circle. B: letter gamma (Γ) in relief. Overstrock on token with alpha (A) or delta (Δ). Μολύβδινο σύμβολο, με παράσταση περικεφαλαίας στη μία πλευρά και ανάγλυφη ... 3 July 1971

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[Object]  IL 1576: Lead Token

Cips missing. A: greave to right, in incuse circle. B: letter gamma (Γ) in relief. Overstrock on token with another letter. Μολύβδινο σύμβολο, με παράσταση περικνημίου πολεμιστού στη μία πλευρά και ανάγλυφη ... 3 July 1971

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[Object]  IL 1577: Lead Token

Whole. A: greave to right, in incuse circle. B: letter delta (Δ) in relief. Overstrock. Μολύβδινο σύμβολο, με παράσταση περικνημίου πολεμιστού στη μία πλευρά και ανάγλυφη παράσταση γράμματος "Δ" στην ... 3 July 1971

[Object]  IL 1579: Lead Token

Whole. A: shield with letter alpha (A) and surrounded by row of dots, in incuse circle. B: letter alpha (A) in relief. Overstrock. Μολύβδινο σύμβολο, με παράσταση ασπίδος με εγγεγραμμένο γράμμα "Α", περικυκλωμένο ... 7 July 1971

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[Object]  MC 820: Upper Half of Symbolon

Intact. Inscribed, rectangular, but with toothed lower edge. The inscriptions in black glaze, much flaked. On one side: H Α Λ Ι Μ Ο Σ On the other side: Λ Ε Ο [ Ν Τ Ι Σ ] Traces of red wash on both faces ... 20 April 1950

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[Object]  MC 821: Lower Half of Symbolon

Intact save minor chips. Inscribed, rectangular but with wavy upper edge. On one side the inscription: Π Ο Λ On the other side the inscription: i.e. Λ Ε Ο (Ν Τ Ι Σ) Κάτω τμήμα από πήλινο ενεπίγραφο ... 20 April 1950

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[Object]  MC 822: Lower Half of Symbolon

Intact. Rectangular, but with wavy upper edge. Letters in black glaze, mostly flaked away. On one side the insription: Π Ο Λ On the other the inscription: Ε Ρ Ε (Χ Θ Ε Ι Σ) Red wash all over. Κάτω τμήμα ... 20 April 1950

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[Object]  MC 1164: Token

Intact. Obverse: inscribed. It has three lines of text made of an ovoid seal. Reverse: parallel striations (traces of the object-wood (?) against which it was affixed). Orange-buff clay. Cf. MC 1187 for ... 26 July 1971

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[Object]  MC 1165: Token

Small chips from edges broken away. Obverse: inscribed. It has three lines of text made of an ovoid seal. Reverse: parallel striations (traces of the object-wood (?) against which it was affixed). Pink ... 26 July 1971

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[Object]  MC 1169: Token

Intact. Obverse: inscribed. It has three lines of text made of an ovoid seal. Reverse: parallel striations (traces of the object-wood (?) against which it was affixed). Pink clay. Similar to MC 1164 and ... 27 July 1971

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[Object]  MC 1170: Token

Intact. Obverse: inscribed. It has three lines of text made of an ovoid seal. Reverse: parallel striations (traces of the object-wood (?) against which it was affixed). Pink clay. Similar to MC 1164 and ... 27 July 1971

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[Object]  MC 1179: Token

Intact. Obverse: inscribed. It has three lines of text made of an ovoid seal. Reverse: plain. Pink clay. Similar to MC 1174 and from seal 2-type II A. Cf. MC 1174, for the inscription. Πήλινο σύμβολο ... 27 July 1971

[Object]  MC 1183: Token

Intact. Obverse: inscribed. It has three lines of text made of an ovoid seal. Reverse: parallel striations (traces of the object-wood (?) against which it was affixed). Orange clay. Similar to MC 1164 ... 28 July 1971

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[Object]  MC 1189: Token

Small chips missing. Obverse: inscribed. It has three lines of text made of an ovoid seal. Reverse: parallel striations (traces of the object-wood (?) against which it was affixed). Buff clay. Similar ... 28 July 1971

[Object]  MC 1190: Token

Small chips missing. Obverse: inscribed. It has three lines of text made of an ovoid seal. Reverse: parallel striations (traces of the object-wood (?) against which it was affixed). Buff clay. Similar ... 28 July 1971

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[Object]  MC 1245: Token

Complete, mended from two pieces. Three line stamp, rectangular. Plain raised border. Somewhat carelessly cut out. Attic clay. Πήλινο σύμβολο. Αποτελείται από δύο τμήματα. Η επιγραφή απλώνεται τρεις στίχους ... 1 July 1975

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[Object]  P 2084: Klepsydra with Dipinto

Mended from two pieces, one small fragment does not join. Lower part of large pot. Flat bottom, slightly projecting. Immediately above it is a small clay spout corresponding to an opening pierced through ... 29 May 1933

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[Object]  P 3559: Vessel with Dipinto: Official Measure ...

Mended from many pieces; a good bit of the floor missing, and a few fragments from the rim and sides, also the handles. The dimensions, the inscription, and both stamps complete. A cylindrical vessel, ... 16-17 April 1934

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[Object]  P 3786: Ostrakon of Kallixenos

From the rim of a large krater. Rather small rolled rim. Black glaze on the inside, on the rim, and probably for a band below the inscription on the outside. Scratched in the dry clay: Mixed fill over ... 14 May 1934

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[Object]  P 5117: Black Glaze Vicup with Graffito

Parts of rim missing. Restored in plaster. Similar in shape and fabric to P 5116 (Α 1038), with a similar graffito scratched through the dry glaze in the middle of the floor, as well as on the underside ... 12-15 March 1935

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[Object]  P 9950: Ostrakon of Themistokles Neokleous

Rim fragment from a small krater, black glazed on inside and rim only. Writing on inside: Όστρακο οστρακοφορίας Θεμιστοκλέους. Προέρχεται από το χείλος μικρού μελαμβαφούς κρατήρος. Finished Cushion for ... 22 April 1937

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[Object]  P 9973: Ostrakon of Aristeides Lysimachou

Rim fragment from an amphora. Black glazed inside and out, reserved on top. Writing on inside: Όστρακο οστρακοφορίας Αριστείδου Δικαίου. Προέρχεται από το χείλος αμφορέα. Finished Gravelly filling beneath ... 24 April 1937

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[Object]  P 13429: Olpe: Inscribed

Neck, handle and much of back wall missing. Flat bottom; gently rounding sides. Above, on the shoulder, painted in the glaze, the ligature delta-epsilon. Pinkish-buff clay. Glazed. Neck glazed inside; ... 8 June 1938

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[Object]  P 14431: Bowl with Lead Seal Attached

Several pieces, including chunks from sides and rim, missing. Flat bottom; straight sides; flat-topped projecting rim. Orange-buff clay. Light slip. Surface much worn. On side wall, just below rim, a ... 9-12 February 1937

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[Object]  P 16755: Ostrakon of Perikles Xanthippou

About one-third of a black-glaze skyphos base with reserved band on exterior above foot. Flaring ring foot; space inside foot reserved. Excellent glaze, slightly worn on the resting surface. Incised on ... 24 May 1940

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[Object]  P 18555: Ostrakon of Kimon Miltiadou

Part of a roof curved cover tile, glazed black outside. Incised on exterior wall: Kιμον Μιλτιαδο Όστρακο οστρακοφορίας Κίμωνος. Acropolis Museum Temporary Exhibition (May 2010) Finished Poros enclosure, ... 25 September 1947

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[Object]  SS 8080: Stamped Piece of Clay

Small rectangular piece of clay; on the flat back surface clear traces of its having been attached to something; otherwise except for chips at edges, complete. Fine buff clay. A narrow raised edge about ... 26 May 1938

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[Coin]  N 20394: Greek Coin

Chronology after Morkholm 1984. Τετράδραχμο Αθηνών 2ου αιώνα π.Χ. Coin no. 9. Head of Athena Parthenos r., wearing elaborately ornamented Attic helmet. Border of dots. Α-ΘΕ Owl standing r. on amphora, ... Athens ... 100/99 B.C.

[Coin]  N 24858

Coin no. 5. Church of Christ, west end, on strosis beside pithos mouth. 99-35-9, 99-35-10 ... Manuel I ... 1143-1180 A.D.

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[Coin]  N 38422: Greek Coin

Τετράδραχμο Αθηνών 3ου αιώνα π.Χ. Coin no. 1. Casts. Brown earth on bedrock east of poros blocks and north of their line - i.e. floor of building. Head of Athena r., wearing Attic helmet ornamented with ... Athens ... Ca. 390-295 B.C.

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[Coin]  N 38425: Greek Coin

Τετράδραχμο Αθηνών 5ου αιώνα π.Χ. Casts. Crushed bedrock fill -low down- alongside E-W wall north of Room 9. From fill containing pottery of first half to mid-5th c. B.C. Head of Athena r., wearing Attic ... Athens ... Ca. 450's - 404 B.C.

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[Drawing]  PD 1195-2004: The Agora and northwest Athens in the ...

Version of PD 1195 for Agora Picture Book 4 (2004).

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[Drawing]  PD 1207-2004: Plan of the Agora in the 4th century B.C.

Version for Agora Picture Book 4 (2004). In the Camp and Mauzy version the Rectangular Peribolos is called Aiakeion.

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[Drawing]  PD 2448-2004: Plan of the Mint, southeast corner of ...

Version of PD 2448 for Agora Picture Book 4 (2004).

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[Image]  2008.19.0022

Model of the public buildings on the west side of the Agora. Temple of Hephaistos/Arsenal, Tholos, Council House, Metroon, Temple of Apollo, Stoa of Zeus ... Craig Mauzy ... Cf. 1997.02.0108 northwest Horizontal (normal) ... 1946

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[Image]  2007.11.1125

Eponymous Heroes, restored sketch with statues and tablets affixed ... M.R. Holland ... =LIII-68 (not in DB). Horizontal (normal) ... 1952

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[Image]  2008.19.0021

Civic buildings on the west side of the Agora, from the southeast ... Cf. 1997.03.0251 northwest Horizontal (normal) ... 3/12/1957

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[Image]  2008.19.0012

Excavation of Trench V in the Stoa Temenos: underpinning of the stone identified the Oath stone (lithos) of the Athenians, on the steps of the Royal Stoa. Sixth century B.C. and later. North wall of Stoa ... northwest 988 Horizontal (normal) ... 10/8/1970

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[Image]  2010.01.0469

Model of the Monument of the Eponymous Heroes. Notices concerning members of a given tribe would be posted below the statue of the appropriate tribal hero ... Craig Mauzy ... Cf. 2004.02.0002, 2000.02.1185 and 2008.19.0014. Horizontal (normal) ... 19/11/2008

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[Image]  2008.19.0001

The Agora and northwest Athens in the second century A.D ... Horizontal (normal)

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[Image]  2008.19.0002

Law against Tyranny with a relief of Democracy crowning Demos (the people of Athens), 337/6 B.C ... Craig Mauzy ... Upper part of the stele, cf. 2007.01.0967. Horizontal (normal)

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[Image]  2008.19.0003

Tholos dining ware inscribed "Demosion": a black-glaze kylix (P 5517), a small olpe (P 13469) and an official measure (P 3559) ... Craig Mauzy ... Cf. 2004.02.0078 Horizontal (normal)

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[Image]  2008.19.0004

Athenian silver coin with Athena, fifth–second centuries B.C ... Craig Mauzy ... Detail of 2008.19.0038 Horizontal (normal)

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[Image]  2008.19.0005

Ostrakon of Themistokles Neokleos ... Craig Mauzy ... Detail of 2008.19.0029 Horizontal (normal)

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[Image]  2008.19.0006

Clay tokens of a cavalry commander ... Craig Mauzy ... Detail of 2008.19.0017 Horizontal (normal)

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[Image]  2008.19.0007

Restored drawing of the Eponymous Heroes ... Cf. 52-233 Horizontal (normal)

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[Image]  2008.19.0008

Model of the Agora in ca. 400 B.C., from the southeast ... Craig Mauzy ... Cf. 2007.11.1092 Horizontal (normal)

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[Image]  2008.19.0009

Plan of the Agora in the 4th century B.C ... In Camp and Mauzy (2009), the Rectangular Peribolos is called Aiakeion. Horizontal (normal)

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[Image]  2008.19.0010

Boundary stone of the Agora, ca. 500 B.C. In letters which run right to left the inscription reads: “I am the boundary of the Agora.” ... Cf. 2007.01.0949 Horizontal (normal)

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[Image]  2008.19.0011

Speaker’s platform (bema) on the Pnyx, fourth century B.C ... Cf. 2004.02.0103. Version of LCT-77 Horizontal (normal)

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[Image]  2008.19.0013

Map of demes and tribes. Each color stands for one of the 10 tribes, each mark for an individual deme. The lines link groups of demes that be- long to the same tribe. The number within each mark records ... Horizontal (normal)

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[Image]  2008.19.0014

Model of the Monument of the Eponymous Heroes. Notices concerning members of a given tribe would be posted below the statue of the appro- priate tribal hero ... Craig Mauzy ... Cf. 2004.02.0002, 2000.02.1185, 2010.01.0468. Horizontal (normal)

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[Image]  2008.19.0015

Drawing of a lead cavalry tablet, fourth century B.C., registering a horse belonging to Konon, chestnut in color, with a centaur brand, worth 700 drachmas ... Horizontal (normal)

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[Image]  2008.19.0016

Lead tokens, third century B.C., stamped with items of armor (breastplate, helmet, greaves) to be issued to the cavalry. Top row, left to rigt: IL 1572, IL 1576, IL 1577. Bottom row, left to right: IL ... Craig Mauzy ... Horizontal (normal)

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[Image]  2008.19.0017

(top) Circular terracotta tokens of Pheidon of the deme of Thriasia, Athenian cavalry commander (hipparch) at Lemnos, fourth century B.C. Upper row, left to rihgt: MC 1164, MC 1165, MC 1169, MC 1170. Middle ... Craig Mauzy ... Combination of LCT-33 and LCT-124. Horizontal (normal)

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[Image]  2008.19.0018

Casualty list, fifth century B.C, with the fallen listed by tribe ... Craig Mauzy ... Cf. 2007.01.0973 Horizontal (normal)

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[Image]  2008.19.0019

Bronze shield captured from the Spartans at Pylos in 425/4 B.C. Punched inscription on the shield: “The Athenians from the Lacedaimonians at Pylos.” ... Craig Mauzy ... Horizontal (normal)

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[Image]  2008.19.0020

Drawing of bronze shield captured from the Spartans at Pylos in 425/4 B.C. Punched inscription on the shield: “The Athenians from the Lacedaimonians at Pylos.” ... Cf. PD 445 and Ptg. 208. Horizontal (normal)

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[Image]  2008.19.0023

Drinking cup from the Tholos, ca. 480–460 B.C. The ligature on the bottom (delta epsilon) stands for DE[MOSION]: “public property.” ... Horizontal (normal)

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[Image]  2008.19.0024

Drinking cup from the Tholos, ca. 480–460 B.C. The ligature on the bottom (delta epsilon) stands for DE[MOSION]: “public property.” ... Horizontal (normal)